Togo

Togo Fish Market & fish farming

Togo search for a new Tilapia and catfish farm location.
On behalf of a local investor, a search for a suitable Tilapia
and Catfish farm location and a pre-feasibility study were carried out.
The farm combined earth ponds and cages in the “Zio” river
  • The fish market in Togo depends on offshore catch and imports from other countries. The daily catch arrives at the fish market in Lome, purchased by the ” fish mammies” who clean and distribute the fish to shops and end customers.

  • Most fish are sold fresh, but some are dried, smoked or salted.

    The local distribution suffers from below-standard sanitary conditions and a lack of cold storage facilities, thus reducing product shelf-life to a minimum.

  • Some import companies operating in Togo purchase fish worldwide, import and distribute throughout the country. These firms keep refrigeration facilities and cold Lorries, which enable continued distribution to markets.

    Imported Tilapia fish

    During our visit, we did not see and were not informed of any aquaculture farming in the country.

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Jamaica

Jamaica Fish farming

Alphalapia by Uri Ben Israel was planning and constructing a Red & Gray Tilapia fish farm – called “AQUALAPIA”.The annual production of the farm was 4,000 tons of Tilapia fish. Most of the products went to the Us market. Aqualapia were the first in the world to sell tilapia fish fillet in United States markets.

Later on, Mr. Ben Israel managed the farm for three years; the farm employed more than 120 workers.

The AQUALAPIA farm performs vertical integration business activities:

 

 

  • Produces Tilapia and Carp fingerlings for internal production and the external market.

  • Grows red Tilapia fish for the local fresh and processed fish markets.

  • Processing plant produces quality fillet for the local market and for export.

  • Marketing and distribution of the farm products is done by the farm  management and its marketing team.

JAMAICA – Aqualapia (146 earth ponds of Tilapia fish)

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Ethiopia Fish Farm Consulting

After a short visit and study on the State of Ethiopia have reached these conclusions…

  • The supply from traditional capture fisheries is lagging behind the demand of the growing fish consumption in Ethiopia. This offers opportunities for Aquaculture businesses to play a role in improving fish production and expanding the fish markets opportunities. Much land is suitable for aquaculture in Ethiopia and for most systems (earthen ponds, concrete ponds, cages in lakes and more).

  • The only option for a fast development of aquaculture in Ethiopia

    Aquaculture needs certain basic resources and inputs, such as feeds,

    Fingerlings, suitable land and water, markets research.

    For the development of aquaculture in Ethiopia, the establishment of a few Intensive fish farms is crucial.

  • There are opportunities for two specific business models:

    1. Large scale intensive commercial fish production;

    2. Semi-intensive small-scale commercial fish production

    3. Good consultancy and know how.

    Farming of tilapia and Catfish could be a viable business proposition under certain Circumstances

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Nigeria Fish Farming

Fish farming in Nigeria

  • Feasibility study for 500 ton Tilapia fish farm, undertaken for private investors in the Yola Region that included planning and designing the necessary production facilities.
  • Agrivision Corp. (The Aquaculture Division) of Nigeria – A feasibility study was carried out for two large Tilapia and Catfish farms. The project included a processing plant, hatchery, feed production plant and laboratory. Cultivation methods included cages and earth ponds for raising fish.

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Products & Methods

Fish Farming Consulting and Aquaculture Experts Services

Choosing the right products and production technique can be a vital decision making for the success of your new initiative.The different fish species, such as tilapia, catfish, trout carp, and other spices shrimps, which mast fit to the market demand, country’s regulations and climatic conditions.

The appropriate production methods can make great differences of the initial investment and day by day operation costs. Such method must be decided with great care and consideration to the type of fish, environmental conditions, water situation on the site and many more factors.

Aquaculture fish type:

Tilapia

Catfish

Carps

Shrimp

Click on any picture to learn more about case studies & Services:

Earth ponds and cages
Tilapia Farming

Growing fish in cages system
Cages

Catfish Farming implementation
Catfish Farming

Ponds Aquaculture Projects
Earth Ponds

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Community Fish Farm

COMMUNITY FISH FARM

Tilapia Catfish and Carps Farming

By Uri Ben Israel an Aquaqulture expert

Introduction

Fish is the main source of animal protein in Africa, of which tilapia & catfish have been predominant. An ever growing surge in worldwide demand for these two species creates immense opportunities. This is a tremendous business opportunity that can benefit many Africans within a short period.

The Community Farming Initiative

Small scale aquaculture farming (family fish farm) brought more and more attention worldwide. Community farming relies on the family working capacity for daily operation that relying on central powerful data support and supply of inputs.

Small scale aquaculture farming (family fish farm) is bringing more and more attention worldwide. Community farming depends on a family working capacity for daily operation, supply of inputs and powerful central data support.

The initiative will set its production system among families who are living around water sources. Using small modular rearing ponds or any other system (cages concrete ponds etc.), a family could operate a number of cages/ponds according to its available land. Each family will be supported by the center unit that supplies raw material, serves, and purchases fish for processing and marketing.

A management and supporting center will operate the fingerlings hatchery to supply the farmers; feeding center, laboratory, extension service processing plant, cold storage rooms, marketing, distribution, equipment store, credit assistance and other elements for integrating business.

Operating as star and satellites, the operation will involve extensive relations not just between the center unit and families, but with local equipment and feed suppliers, research and extension officers from the ministry of Agriculture and potential customers.

Community Farm in Africa (Cages & Earth ponds)

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Implementation

The initiative design as rolling project, starting an initial pilot, which will involve and support from a few dozen and up to hundreds families, and aim to produce 5,000 t. fish per annum within the first four years.

The initial operation size and development will depend on local conditions and management policy.

Marketing

While part of the families’ production will used for self consumption and selling on the informal markets, most production will sell to the central processing plant and from there to export and to the local market.

Rational & Benefits

National/states Benefits:

  1. The project will supply work and income for more than 800 families that are involved in fish farming and approximately 600 workers (50% of them women) in the central service unit.
    Additional income and labour employment will be made for the suppliers of cages, equipment, feed etc.

  2. The initiative can be quickly implemented, start its production within a few months. Its short production cycles, which are less then 6 month, enable immediate impact on society.

  3. Enable quick economical impact in rural regions, at relatively small capital investment

  4. Reduce unemployment by supplying jobs to women and unskilled men in the process plant and fish rearing at their own yard.

  5. Improve foreign trade balance since most of its supply will comes from the local market.

  6. Reduce malnutrition, illnesses and medical cost.

Individuals Benefits:

  1. Enable poor families to set up their own small business – access to financing, markets and knowledge they can’t reach otherwise.

  2. Increase household’s income, improve welfare and wealth distribution

  3. Reduce food cost for family and external expenditure on food.

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Catfish Farming

Fish Farming Catfish facts and implementation

Introduction:  By Uri Ben Israel an Aquaculture expert

Introduction:  By Uri Ben Israel an Aquaculture expertcat fish in fish farm

Aquaculture: aquaculture is the production, through artificial cultivation techniques, of any aquatic plant or animal, such as fish, shrimp and clams. Aquaculture is sometimes referred to as “the agriculture of the oceans,” involving the “growing” and “harvesting” of aquatic life, including but not limited to fish, shellfish and algae.

Although it is a relatively new field, already about fifteen percent of total worldwide production of fish and seafood currently comes from aquaculture “farms.” Environmentally, as aquaculture production expands to meet the global demand for fisheries products, it is essential that efficient and sustainable production systems be developed and utilized by trained professionals.

Benefits of catfish production

The African Catfish (Clarias Gariepinus) is widespread all over Africa and is regarded as important diet and protein source.  It enjoys warm climate, grows in earth ponds, concrete ponds, tanks or channels and reaches market size of 1-1.5 kg within relatively short time

Catfish can eat almost anything it can find in nature. However, on a commercial production, it is important to feed it with quality food to ensure fast growth and optimal weight / size. Unlike other fish, cat fish breathes fresh air from the atmosphere. It can survive and grow in brackish and low oxygen water. It can tolerate high density, up to 400 kg per M3 water.

Catfish flesh has many practical selling options such as fresh, live, smoked cooked and more. Catfish is very popular worldwide and is the most desirable and preferred fish in Africa.

Rationale and Benefits

Fish farming initiatives have many benefits that can be viewed from different angles. It affects individuals, communities and the country macro-economy. It can be viewed in measurable economic and business terms as well as non-measurable terms, such as health and education.

  • Family Diet Improvement-Nutrition – high quality meat source that is rich with protein, but very low fat.

  • Extra Income for households.

  • Exploit private resources such as water and land.

National/states Benefits:

  • Reduce fish import and hence save foreign currency expenditure.

  • Boost economy development of gross domestic market.

  • Reduce unemployment, poverty and political unrest.

  • Reduce malnutrition, illnesses and medical cost.

  • Utilization of unexploited resources – land, water and labor.

Planning

  • Planning is based on the following factors:

  • Place of project – Topography

  • Weather

  • Soil (type act.)

  • Water (Sources, quantity and quality)

  • Infrastructure Available..

  • Market

  • Planned annual production.

  • Fingerlings production supply.

  • Equipment, storage and inventories.

Fish farming catfish facts

There are several stages in the growth and development of the catfish fingerling:

  • Artificially obtaining the eggs and the sperms from the parent-stock to mix it and produce the Catfish larva.

  • Growing of larva to fingerlings size: 0.5gr – about one month.

  • Growing of fingerling to juveniles’ size: 5gr – about one month.

The initial stages require very high professionalism, since they use advanced and complicated methods to ensure high fertilization and receiving the high planned number of fingerlings.

Capacity and Structure

The proposed (sample) project is for the production of 300 tons per year catfish, the farm includes:

  • Rearing tanks.

  • Juvenile tanks – in the Hatchery

  • Growing out tanks

  • Water pipes

  • Electricity system + generators

  • Drainage pipes.

  • Office room & Residents

  • Shading for the tanks.

  • Equipment

The rearing tanks will consist of 20m3 of water.

The fingerlings will be purchased from the farm hatchery and will be grown initially in the juvenile tanks before being transferred to the “grow out tanks”.

The Running water System

The treating water System will keep flow of clean water for the fish. The system is built of sedimentation tanks to remove the fasces, ammonium, CO2 and heat.

The water is being pumped continuously from the nearest reservoir/well to the filter, and by pipes (as clean water) to the fish tanks, continuing to the sedimentation tanks and then, back to the reservoir.

The Growth Inputs

The major inputs for the farm are:

a)   Water

b)   Fingerlings / Juveniles

c)   High quality food

d)   Electric Power

e)   Manpower

Water Consumption

The farm will consume 150m3(cubic meters) of water per hour. That will cover the hatchery needs and the grow out area.

Fingerlings / Juveniles

The hatchery is regarded as a standalone vertical integration unit since it will supply fingerlings to the farm internally as well as other fish farms in the region.

 Concrete ponds

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Feed

The feed is crucial for the best and the most efficient development of the fish production.  The imported feed should be in high quality.  The food conversion rate (FCR) in the farm is based on 1:1.4 = 1.4 kg of feed to get 1 kg of fish.

The “Growing out” stages program:

a) First cycle – 5 – 30 gr. 30 days.

b) Second cycle – 30 – 250 gr. 45 days

c) Third cycle – 250 – 1300 gr. (market size) 105-115 days

Type of fish feed – Pelleted of different size, protein and fat content. Fingerlings size 1 gram to 50 gram getting feed with 48% protein and 12% fat. Fish from 50 gram up to market size, getting feed with 42-45 protein and 9% fat.

 Sorting system

Implementation timetable

  • Measuring and designing

  • Digging and infrastructure setup

  • Farming Methodology study

  • Equipment order

Marketing

The farm is designing to market linear share of the annual production every week – which compute Monthly average output of 25,000 kg.

Most of the production will sell at farm gate or will carry to local markets. One should take into consideration that such distribution requires good facilities such as ice machine, refrigeration room cooling pickup and more, to keep the fish fresh.

If restaurants or hotels are located at reasonable distance, the farm may try to establish long term business relations and to increase its profit margins.

Risk Management

Investors must be aware to some risks that can jeopardize their production. Among these are:

  • Meteorological conditions of the site and the climatic conditions, the chance for flooding, storms and drought.

  • Monitoring and patrolling farms regularly to prevent theft saboteurs and vandalism.

  • Check beforehand for a chance of pollution from other neighboring industries.

  • Farms should seek for technical and data support to reduce risk of technical misunderstanding. Learning from own mistakes can be expensive tuition fee.

  • Make long term planning of work and needs to avoid last minute crises

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Growing Fish in Caged System

Earth ponds and Cages

Growing fish in Cages system

By: Uri Ben Israel an Aquaculture expert

 

About cage farming tilapia

Raising fish in cages is a successful system used in many parts of the world.  It has replaced the traditional fish-growing method of earth ponds.  Its advantages are well recognized and it is widely spread all over the globe.  The first and most important advantage is the unlimited amount of water surrounding the cages. This unlimited water supply provides vast amounts of oxygen and running water, which is necessary for productive fish farming. In addition to that, the financial investment in such a system is much lower. This system of cages is simpler in daily operation in comparison to any other commonly used method of growing fish.

Site Selection and Placement of Cages

Large bodies of water tend to be better suited for cage culture than small ponds, because the water quality is generally more stable and less affected by fish waste. Exceptions are entropic waters rich in nutrients and organic matter. Small (1 to 5 acres) ponds can be used for cage culture, but provisions for water exchange or emergency aeration may be required. Cages should be placed where water currents are greatest, usually to the windward side. Calm, stagnant areas should be avoided. However, areas with rough water and strong currents also present problems.

Cages may be moored individually or linked in groups to piers, rafts, or lines of heavy rope suspended across the water surface. At least 5 meters should separate each cage to optimize water quality. The cage floor should be a minimum of 4 meters above the bottom substrate, where waste accumulates and oxygen levels may be depressed. However, greater depths promote rapid growth and reduce the possibility of parasitism and disease.

Grow-Out

The optimum fingerling size for stocking in final grow out cages is determined by the length of the growing season and the desired market size. The shorter the growing season, the larger the fingerlings must be at stocking. The use of male populations, which grow at 30-40% the rate of female populations, will result in larger fish, greater production and a reduction during the grow-out period.

Recommended stocking rate of tilapia fingerlings depends on cage volume, desired harvest size and production level, and the length of the culture period.

Water exchange is less frequent in large cages, and therefore the stocking rate must be reduced accordingly to fish size.

In tropical or subtropical regions with a year-round growing season, a staggered production system could be used to facilitate marketing by ensuring regular harvests, e.g., weekly, biweekly, or monthly. The exact strategy will depend on the number of cages available and the total production potential of the body of water.

Daily Operation

The cage system is serviced by a number of floating elements. The work between the cages is performed using motorboats. The use of motorboats serves several purposes: stocking fish into the cages, harvesting fish from the cages, extracting fish to the processing plant, transferring fish between the cages, feeding the fish and a vast number of other activities requiring movement between cages and shore. In addition, the motorboat is used to move the whole cage to the shore for harvesting, restocking or net preparation.

Stocking and harvesting fish can also be done by using special fish tanks on the service boats that contain water with oxygen, which comes from a special bottle of oxygen. The extraction of the fish is done part by hand and part by mean of a special device for the extraction of fish called the Archimedes Screw (Fish Elevator).

At a central point in the lake a wharf will be located to serve the cages by the boats. The wharf will be the main service point which will concentrate all cage related matters such as loading and unloading of food sacks, fuel station, repair and maintenance of the cages, exit point for the divers and a place to tie up the boats at night, and to leave extra floating technical elements.

From time to time, when the cages are emptied of fish, the nets will be transported to shore and washed in a specially designated facility. The fish farm will be serviced by a number of divers whose role will be to watch for damage to the cages, repair the nets in case of tears caused by predators or by any other causes.

Elevator for fish harvesting

Total production

Total production in cages increases as the stocking rate is increased. However, there is a density at which tilapia become too crowded and water quality within the cage deteriorates to a point that causes a decline in growth rates.  In cages, production should be limited to 30 -50 kg per cubic meter. Tilapia continues to grow above these levels at gradually decreasing rates, but they convert feed poorly, and the risk of loss due to oxygen depletion or disease is greater. For maximum turnover of mar

ketable fish, it is best to limit production to levels that do not depress growth. The total number of cages that can be deployed in a lake and therefore total fish production, is primarily a function of maximum allowable feeding rate for all cages in that body of water. The total feed input is related to number and size of fish in the cages (the biomass) and is limited by surface area of the pond.

Cages advantages and disadvantages

Some advantages are:

  • Flexibility of management

  • Ease and low cost of harvesting

  • Close observation of fish feeding response and health

  • Ease and economical treatment of parasites and diseases

  • Relatively low capital investment compared to ponds and raceways

Some disadvantages are:

  • Risk of loss from poaching or damage to cages from predators or storms

  • Less tolerance of fish to poor water quality

  • Dependence on nutritionally-complete diets

Leveling turned over – This may occur when anaerobic material flows up from the bottom of the lake, increasing toxic chemicals and lost of oxygen in the water.

 

  • The cage has three main parts. The outer part which floats on the water surface is made from 2-3 HDPE tubes. The diameter of the tubes is 250mm and they compose the upper floating base (as seen in the pictures) to which the fish growing net is tied.

  •  The second component is the net, where the fish are kept and grown. The net is completely submerged under water in a depth as determined by the farm’s requirements.

  • The third component is the mooring system located at the bottom of the lake which anchors the cage system to the designated location above water surface. The mooring system is anchored to the bottom with heavy anchors (as illustrated below). Out of this anchoring system are a number of cables protrude which connect to the cages and thus anchor the cage so that it cannot move. This system is designed to withstand strong winds and large waves. A number of mooring systems will be placed in several locations in the lake. Each of the systems will carry 24 cages. Each system will be named so it will be characterized and identified by the farm’s computer.

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Tilapia Fish Farm

Earth ponds and Cages

Tilapia Fish Farming & Marketing

By Uri Ben Israel an Aquaqulture expert

By choosing this method your aim is to establish a fish farm capable of growing and marketing any amount of tilapia per year. It will enable you to grow tilapia fish in earth ponds utilizing the unique advantages in that selected area.

Why Tilapia? and why in Africa?

First and foremost, tilapia is amongst the most favourable fish worldwide. The demand for Tilapia is rapidly exceeding supply which is why the price remains high. Another important advantage is the reproduction and production ability of the tilapia species. West Africa has extremely ideal conditions for raising

The increasing demand encourages many growers to enter into tilapia production worldwide. Tilapia belongs to the Cichid family of fishes. It is one of the major groups of food fish around the world, especially in the tropical semi tropical areas. Tilapia has been called “Saint Peter’s fish” in reference to biblical passages about the fish fed to the multitudes. Tilapia due to the quantity and quality of the water and due to optimal weather conditions all year round. Tilapia will die if left in unheated ponds in the winters of most of North America. Because tilapia is a native African fish, it has a relatively strong resistance to diseases and therefor ideal for the earth pond or cages rearing system proposed in this project.

Fry Production Process In Tilalpia Fish Farming

Here is an example for a system of Broodstock and sex reversal: Three groups of broodstock (parents) 1000 females + 400 males which will produce 2.500.000 fry per year.

Breeding stock enter the production cycle of 14 days in the spawning ponds. After 14 days the fry are separated from their parents and transferred to the sex reversal ponds.

Why Sex reversal?

  • By producing 100% males we prevent the fish from reproduction. It is essential to control the number of fish in each pond.

  • Tilapia male is faster growing by 30-40% then Tilapia female.

The process of sex reversal is accomplished by providing high quality feed with a male hormone supplement (testosterone) which changes the fry to 98% male. Duration of treatment: 25-30 days.

The “Hormone supplement” – It is come with portions of 10 kg of high quality fish feed (45% protein) mix with 0.6 gram of a male hormone (testosterone).  To mix the hormone with the feed, we use 4 liter of alcohol which spread the very little hormone on the feed. Eventually the alcohol is evaporated and disappear.

Nursery: The fry after sex reversal are transferred into nursery ponds in two stages until they reach 50 grams.

Stage A — size of 1 gram – 20 gram in 50 days in a density of 200.000/Hact.

Stage B — size of 20 gram – 50 gram in 25 days in a density of 100.000/Hact.

Stage C — Size of 50 gram – 250 gram in 65 days in density of 30000/Hact.

Stage D — size of 250 gram – 500 gram in 60 days in a density of 20000 – 25000/Hact.

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Tilapia fish farming Cages

About cage farming tilapia

Raising fish in cages is a successful system used in many parts of the world.  It has replaced the traditional fish-growing method of earth ponds.  Its advantages are well recognized and it is widely spread all over the globe.  The first and most important advantage is the unlimited amount of water surrounding the cages. This unlimited water supply provides vast amounts of oxygen and running water, which is necessary for productive fish farming. In addition to that, the financial investment in such a system is much lower. This system of cages is simpler in daily operation in comparison to any other commonly used method of growing fish.

Site Selection and Placement of Cages

Large bodies of water tend to be better suited for cage culture than small ponds, because the water quality is generally more stable and less affected by fish waste. Exceptions are entropic waters rich in nutrients and organic matter. Small (1 to 5 acres) ponds can be used for cage culture, but provisions for water exchange or emergency aeration may be required. Cages should be placed where water currents are greatest, usually to the windward side. Calm, stagnant areas should be avoided. However, areas with rough water and strong currents also present problems.

Cages may be moored individually or linked in groups to piers, rafts, or lines of heavy rope suspended across the water surface. At least 5 meters should separate each cage to optimize water quality. The cage floor should be a minimum of 4 meters above the bottom substrate, where waste accumulates and oxygen levels may be depressed. However, greater depths promote rapid growth and reduce the possibility of parasitism and disease.

Grow-Out

The optimum fingerling size for stocking in final grow out cages is determined by the length of the growing season and the desired market size. The shorter the growing season, the larger the fingerlings must be at stocking. The use of male populations, which grow at 30-40% the rate of female populations, will result in larger fish, greater production and a reduction during the grow-out period.

Recommended stocking rate of tilapia fingerlings depends on cage volume, desired harvest size and production level, and the length of the culture period.

Water exchange is less frequent in large cages, and therefore the stocking rate must be reduced accordingly to fish size.

In tropical or subtropical regions with a year-round growing season, a staggered production system could be used to facilitate marketing by ensuring regular harvests, e.g., weekly, biweekly, or monthly. The exact strategy will depend on the number of cages available and the total production potential of the body of water.

Growing fish in Cages system

Daily Operation

The cage system is serviced by a number of floating elements. The work between the cages is performed using motorboats. The use of motorboats serves several purposes: stocking fish into the cages, harvesting fish from the cages, extracting fish to the processing plant, transferring fish between the cages, feeding the fish and a vast number of other activities requiring movement between cages and shore. In addition, the motorboat is used to move the whole cage to the shore for harvesting, restocking or net preparation.

Stocking and harvesting fish can also be done by using special fish tanks on the service boats that contain water with oxygen, which comes from a special bottle of oxygen. The extraction of the fish is done part by hand and part by mean of a special device for the extraction of fish called the Archimedes Screw (Fish Elevator).

At a central point in the lake a wharf will be located to serve the cages by the boats. The wharf will be the main service point which will concentrate all cage related matters such as loading and unloading of food sacks, fuel station, repair and maintenance of the cages, exit point for the divers and a place to tie up the boats at night, and to leave extra floating technical elements.

From time to time, when the cages are emptied of fish, the nets will be transported to shore and washed in a specially designated facility. The fish farm will be serviced by a number of divers whose role will be to watch for damage to the cages, repair the nets in case of tears caused by predators or by any other causes.

Elevator for fish harvesting

Total production

Total production in cages increases as the stocking rate is increased. However, there is a density at which tilapia become too crowded and water quality within the cage deteriorates to a point that causes a decline in growth rates.  In cages, production should be limited to 30 -50 kg per cubic meter. Tilapia continues to grow above these levels at gradually decreasing rates, but they convert feed poorly, and the risk of loss due to oxygen depletion or disease is greater. For maximum turnover of marketable fish, it is best to limit production to levels that do not depress growth. The total number of cages that can be deployed in a lake and therefore total fish production, is primarily a function of maximum allowable feeding rate for all cages in that body of water. The total feed input is related to number and size of fish in the cages (the biomass) and is limited by surface area of the pond.

Cages advantages and disadvantages

Some advantages are:

  • Flexibility of management

  • Ease and low cost of harvesting

  • Close observation of fish feeding response and health

  • Ease and economical treatment of parasites and diseases

  • Relatively low capital investment compared to ponds and raceways

Some disadvantages are:

  • Risk of loss from poaching or damage to cages from predators or storms

  • Less tolerance of fish to poor water quality

  • Dependence on nutritionally-complete diets

Mooring System Diagram

Leveling turned over – This may occur when anaerobic material flows up from the bottom of the lake, increasing toxic chemicals and lost of oxygen in the water.

  • The cage has three main parts. The outer part which floats on the water surface is made from 2-3 HDPE tubes. The diameter of the tubes is 250mm and they compose the upper floating base (as seen in the pictures) to which the fish growing net is tied.

  •  The second component is the net, where the fish are kept and grown. The net is completely submerged under water in a depth as determined by the farm’s requirements.

  • The third component is the mooring system located at the bottom of the lake which anchors the cage system to the designated location above water surface. The mooring system is anchored to the bottom with heavy anchors (as illustrated below). Out of this anchoring system are a number of cables protrude which connect to the cages and thus anchor the cage so that it cannot move. This system is designed to withstand strong winds and large waves. A number of mooring systems will be placed in several locations in the lake. Each of the systems will carry 24 cages. Each system will be named so it will be characterized and identified by the farm’s computer.

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